Last Update: February 11, 2006

    Background to the "Holy Laughter" Movement

    A Historical and Doctrinal Study
    by Tom and Sheila Smith

    Tom Smith

    Important - Please Read

    Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information presented herein, however, we request that anyone who discovers errors, omissions, or other inaccuracies to please notify us as soon as possible so that the document may be corrected and re-issued. We request that you provide two reference sources so that we can verify the accuracy of the information provided. The information provided is based primarily upon the reference documents given at the end of this document.

    In the interests of ensuring that this document is used to the glory of God,and to further his Kingdom, we request that you do the following when reading this document:

    - Pray for God's guidance, clarity of understanding as you read the document, and for God to guide you to the truth regarding the issues discussed.

    - Consider the information prayerfully, and with an open mind.

    - Take the time to verify whatever points that you feel necessary in order to determine the truth regarding the situation. An extensive reference list is given to assist in verification of the information.

    - Then ask God in prayer how he would have you respond to the information that you have.


    The following comments are my notes, as referred to by the numbers in the various boxes and references in the charts included as part of this package. This is intended to represent only a summary, and additional reading and research is recommended for a full understanding of the history and philosophies behind the laughter movement in general, and the theologies of the key players in particular.

    It should be noted that some of the organizations identified herein are in no way apart of or endorse the "Laughter" movement, but are true churches which hold to orthodox Christian theology. Such organizations are mentioned because some of the key players in the "laughter" movement may have been involved with these churches in an earlier part of their life, or in some cases, were excommunicated or otherwise removed from such organizations.

    * - References which are marked with an "*" are those typically identified as associated with the "Toronto Blessing" or "Holy Laughter" or "Pensacola Outpouring" movements.


    (1) Expulsions From Azusa Street

    Rodney Howard Browne commends Charles Parham and William Branham as men of God. Both of these men, as well as the movement that started as a result of Branhams efforts were cut off from credible Christian institutions and movements as follows:

    - 1906 Charles Parham "excommunicated" from the Azusa Street revival.

    - The Latter Rain movement was forced out of the Assemblies of God church in 1949:(Excerpt from [1]) " These doctrines caused division in traditional Pentecostal churches. They led to the condemnation of the `The New Order of the Latter Rain' by the Assemblies of God in their general council in 1949. After this action, many Assembly ministers resigned or were excommunicated for their involvement and formed independent Latter Rain churches. Most of these churches were small. Their evolving doctrines became increasingly heretical and, many degenerated into clearly definable cults (Church of the Living Word, The Body, House of Prayer, etc.)."

    (2) The Azusa Street Revival

    The Azusa Street Revival began in 1906, with a number of signs and manifestations, such as speaking in tongues and healings. This revival was generally sound in doctrine, but many of the breakoff or branch movements did not emphasize a strong scriptural foundation, but rather emphasized the manifestations themselves. Many churches with a sound doctrinal foundation grew out of the movement, but unfortunately, others chose to ignore the scriptural teachings, and thus a number of movements preaching error or cultic doctrines also grew out of some offshoots of this revival. (Ref: Note 26).

    (3) The Pentecostal and the Assemblies of God denominations

    See Note (2). The Pentecostal and the Assemblies of God denominations grew out of the Azusa street revival. Charles Parham was removed from the movement out of concerns about heretical teachings.

    (4) Kathryn Kuhlman

    Kathryn Kuhlman was ordained a Baptist minister, but did not associate her ministry with any denomination She was heavily influenced by the Azusa street revival, and by the Roman Catholic church. She was well known for the manifestations that occurred at her meetings, including "laughter". She is said to be responsible for the introduction of the manifestation of "Slain in the Spirit". There were some differences to the current movement, though, in that she insisted that her meetings be orderly. Manifestations interrupting the service were not permitted.

    She was highly regarded in many Christian circles, and strongly influenced Benny Hinn and John Arnott (See Note 18).

    (5) United Pentecostal Church

    The UPC grew out of the Azusa street revival, and is a member of what is commonly known as the Oneness Pentecostal movement. The following are the key doctrinal beliefs that distinguish the Oneness Pentecostal movement:

    - Doctrine of "trinity" considered to be demonic

    - Speaking in tongues is an essential sign of salvation

    - Denial of the pre-existence of Christ

    - Jesus was Himself the Father

    - Modalism - Jesus is the only person of the trinity, but appears in three modes at different times.

    - Baptism "in Jesus' name" alone is necessary for salvation.

    (6) William Branham

    Started out with Missionary Baptist church. After a short stint, he joined the United Pentecostal Church (Oneness Pentecostals See note 5). He later rejected all denominations as being of the antichrist and formed the Branham Tabernacle as an independent church.

    His teachings included:

    - God's Word consists of the zodiac, Egyptian pyramids and scripture.

    - Doctrine of trinity is considered demonic

    - The claim that he was Elijah the prophet

    - Millennium to begin in 1977.

    - That he was the seventh angelic messenger to the Laodicean Church Age (Footprints, pg. 620).(Using the dispenational theory that each of the churches in The Book of Revelation represents an age of the church, the current one being the Laodicean Church Age).

    - That anyone belonging to any denomination had taken "the mark of the beast" (Footprints, pp. 627, 629, 643, 648).

    - That he received divinely inspired revelations (The Revelation of the Seven Seals, Branham; Spoken Word Publications, Tucson, Ariz., n.d.; pg.19; Questions and Answers, Book 1, Branham; Spoken Word Publications, Tucson, 1964; pg. 60.)

    - The fall of man happened when Eve had sexual relations with Satan, that his sexual union produced Cain.(Branham said that "every sin that ever was on the Earth was caused by a woman....the very lowest creature on the Earth" The Spoken Word, Vol. III Nos. 12, 13, 14;, Branham; Spoken Word Publications, Jeffersonville, Ind. 1976; pp. 81-82. Quoted in The Man and His Message, pg. 41).

    - Branham denied the biblical triune Godhead. He pronounced it a "gross error" (The Spoken Word, pg. 79) and as a prophet with the authority of a "Thus saith the Lord," revealed that "trinitarianism is of the devil" (Footprints, pg. 606).

    - Unsaved descended from the serpent.

    (7) Quakers (George Fox/Gunner Payne)

    John Wimber began as a Quaker, originally being a member of the Quaker church. George Fox is deemed to be the "prophet" whose teachings tend to be the prime source of guidance for the philosophy followed in the Quaker faith. Gunner Payne was the person who initially had the primary influence in John Wimber's life.

    Quakers (Friends) beliefs are a little hard to quantify, since Friends do not believe in having a fixed Creed or Dogma, but rather in seeking for the leadings of God within ourselves. Some generalizations are possible however (Other than the titles, the following is largely quoted from [3]):

    Doctrine: - Doctrines of Jesus' deity and the virgin birth are nonessential and not accepted as fact.

    - Primacy of "feelings" over scripture as source of testing doctrine.

    - Acceptance of any document as valid for doctrine (i.e. Tao Te Ching, Koran, etc.) (Reference: Bibliography reference item #3))

    - Unitarian Universalists (by their own description) (i.e. all religions and beliefs are correct and of equal value.)

    - Great manifestations including trembling and shaking.

    - George Fox saw himself as an apostle restoring the true church.

    (8) Charles Parham

    (Excerpt from [4]

    "Rodney Howard-Browne speaks glowingly of Charles Parham, apparently unaware that Parham was thrown out of the Azusa Street work in 1906 and banned from that time on. Parham spent the rest of his days denouncing W.J. Seymour and the Azusa Street revival." (see Synan, "The Holiness Pentecostal Movement", pg. 112).

    (9) Latter Rain Movement

    In the mid-1940's, the enthusiasm and fire of the Pentecostal revival that started at Azusa Street was waning, and people were looking for another move of the spirit, and wanted signs and wonders.

    The movement is based upon William Branham, and therefore his theology formed the basis for the Latter Rain theology. He was seen as the "prophet" (Elijah) of the movement.

    - See Note (6) (Theology of William Branham)

    Manifest Sons of God theology/Christians are "gods"

    The following are typical beliefs held by those following this doctrine. These views are not necessarily all held by all adherents to these beliefs. - The revelation of the manifestation of tthe sons of God (extrapolated from Romans 8:19). This doctrine claims that those who are "anointed" have already been manifested as sons of God, and have already received their glorified bodies, or will prior to Christ's return and have/will be perfected in all ways, and will be come "gods" in their own right.

    Christians to subdue/dominate the world PRIOR to Christ's return.

    - The revelation of the dominion mandate (We are to conquer the world and dominate it in order for the millennium to begin). We are to form an army referred to as "Joel's Army". According to this doctrine, the Millennium can come only after we conquer the world. Those who hold this doctrine typically believe that the rapture is to remove the wicked from the world (i.e. denominational churches), and Christ's presence is not essential during the millennium because they believe the church is Christ's body, and therefore is and has all that Christ is and has.

    Replaced Apostasized Pentecostals

    Movement intended to replace "apostasized Pentecostals" (who removed both Branham and the Latter Rain movement for cultic beliefs)

    Restoration of offices of Prophet and Apostle/Branham is Elijah

    - The restoration of "the fivefold ministry" as enumerated in Ephesians 4:11, with particular emphasis on the offices of apostle and prophet. (Branham was widely touted as the prophet Elijah reborn).

    Names associated with this movement:

    Oral Roberts, Paul Cain William Branham, Bill Britton, George Warnock, Franklin Hall, John Robert Stevens, Hatwin Brothers, Sam Fife, Myrtle and James Beall, Earl Paulk.

    (10) Word-Faith Movement

    Popular today, but coexisted with, and grew out of the Latter Rain movement. tends to be predominantly trinitarian, as opposed to the Latter Rain movement, but hold to the primary doctrines put forward by William Branham, and most leaders in this movement uphold Branham as a man of God or prophet.

    Because of the diverse nature of the movement, the doctrines listed below are representative of those held widely or predominantly throughout the leadership of the movement.


    - Christians are "gods", and therefore do not need to ask "in God's will", but rather use our own divinity to speak what we want into being.

    - We are lacking faith if we are not healthy and wealthy. (God intended for us to be rich).

    - Men are capable of saving themselves.

    - Belief in faith as a "force" capable of being used for good or evil.

    - Use of faith-force to change reality or to create through visualization

    - God is unable to operate within the earth realm without our help

    - Use of words (negative) releases Satan's power, while words (positive) release God's power.

    - See Also Note 26, Manifest Sons of God; and Note 6, William Branham. Other than the acceptance of trinitarianism by the Word-Faith movement, the doctrines in these notes tend to be fairly representative of the Word-Faith movement.

    Names associated with this movement:

    Kenneth Copeland, Kenneth Hagin, Benny Hinn, Paul Crouch, Oral Roberts, Richard Roberts, E. W. Kenyon, Earl Paulk.

    (11) * Paul Cain

    Paul Cain started out as part of the Latter Rain movement, following the teachings of William Branham. Paul Cain still tends to follow Branham theology, with the possible exception of acceptance of doctrine of the trinity. Paul Cain is well known for his creation of the term "New Breed", which is a new term describing the Manifest Sons of God theology taught by Branham.

    Paul Cain went on to be the spark behind the founding of the Kansas City Fellowship, an organization based very much on the Latter Rain Movement. He is seen as the guiding prophet of the KCF, and is also highly recommended by leaders of the Vineyard and laughter movement, such as John Wimber.

    His theology appears to consist of:

    - Manifest Sons of God ("New Breed).

    - Opposed to Christians trying to manifest their "sonship" too early. (i.e. trying to walk through walls before they are ready or presumptuously) (reference:See Bibliography, Ref document 36, chapter 6)

    - "Joels' Army": We are to become an army made up of the manifest sons of God who will take control of the earth so to bring in the millennium.

    (12) * Rodney Howard-Browne

    Excerpts from [7]

    His first year in ministry was with Youth for Christ in the Johannesburg area. After that, he enrolled in the Rhema Bible training center (A part of Kenneth Hagin's ministry). After graduation, he began pastoring a small Full Gospel Church of God in Cape Town province.

    After several years, he left abruptly, having no focus or direction. He returned to Rhema, all but begging for a job. He found an opening at an unaccredited Bible school, and became a lecturer for 2 years before going to the USA.

    RHB's biography claims that he served as an associate pastor at Rhema, but according to church officials, he never held any pastoral position or duties at Rhema. He was a lecturer only. A high-level Rhema spokesman was quick to distance Rhema from RHB "Rodney never did it [holy laughter] here. It wouldn't be appropriate." ".....we haven't been in touch with him since 1987-88, so we certainly cannot comment on, or condone what he's doing now.".

    The following is a quote from a CRI (Christian Research Institute) article

    "When asked in May for comment about one of their fellow countrymen, leaders of Enterprise, South Africa's best known evangelical ministry tersely replied that it was "unable to commend [Howard-Browne] or his ministry to you," adding: "Its seems one should approach this form of ministry with care and caution.".

    Howard-Browne also claims to have a "doctorate of ministry degree" from an obscure San Jacinto, Calif. correspondence school call "The School of Bible Theology". A state department of Education employee contacted by the CRI JOURNAL likened the tiny school, which bills itself as "The Seminary to the World" and has no faculty, to a "diploma mill.".

    RHB arrived in the U.S. in Dec. 1987, keeping a low profile because of the Jim Bakker and Swaggart situation for about 18 months. His ministry took off in Albany, N.Y. in April 1989 while he was leading a week of meetings on "the anointing". He claims that he saw a cloud enter the room one morning, and God spoke to him. He complained to God "Lord, you're ruining my meeting".

    In 1993, RHB was asked to preach at Carpenter's Home Church by Karl Strader in Lakeland, Fla. he was to stay one week, but continued for 4 wks because of the vast crowds that came to hear the "laughing evangelist".

    His theology appears to consist of:

    - Opposed to testing manifestations by scripture

    - Praises Branham as a great man of God, and the Latter Rain movement as a move of the spirit (See also notes 1 and 9).

    - Believes that Christians should be wealthy and never ill.

    - We should not "analyze" movement by their theology, but trust experience and the fruits only. Use of scripture is frowned upon for testing.

    - Source of supernatural manifestions is not important (i.e. whether it be of God, flesh or the devil). (Reference:See Bibliography Reference document #4)

    - Presence of God can be passed from person to person.

    (13) * John Wimber

    Founder of the Vineyard churches. Prior to the ministry, he was manager of the pop singing group, The Righteous Brothers. he chose to go into ministry, into the Quaker church. As time went on, he pulled a group of people together, and unilaterally announced formation of a church with himself as pastor.

    He formed this church under the umbrella of the Calvary Chapel churches in California, but a few years later, took his church, and several others out to form his own denomination, the Vineyard.

    He has expressed some concern regarding the laughter phenomenon, but then goes on to discourage use of scripture to test the phenomenon He does concede that there is no Biblical support for the manifestations, and that some who have exhibited the manifestations have had demons cast out of them.

    His theology appears to consist of:

    - "New Breed"/Manifest Sons of God (See note 25).

    - Joel's Army : We are to conquer the world as the manifested sons of God (i.e. in our glorified bodies) to bring in the Millennium.

    - Dominion/Kingdom Now theology

    - Opposed to testing manifestations by scripture

    - Believes in the "corporate Christ". (Christ is not required during the millennium since we are Christ (the body thereof). Christ needs us, because without his body he is incomplete.

    - Accepts use of relics for healing. (per Roman Catholic Church).

    - Paradigm Shift: A shift in the way that Christians think from a rationalistic view, to an approach where doctrine is developed using experiential approach.

    - Claims Laughter Movement is the "Third Wave, the Reformation being the first and the Charismatic Renewal being the second.

    In early 1998, John Wimber died after a fall, to be replaced as leader of the Association of Vineyard Churches by Todd Hunter.

    (14) * Randy Clark

    Randy Clark is a pastor of a Vineyard church in St. Louis Missouri. In 1993, he was quite depressed and his ministry seemed to be stagnated. He was looking for something to reinvigorate his ministry, and attended a meeting of Rodney Howard-Browne's at Kenneth Hagin's Rhema Bible Church in Tulsa.

    He received the "laughter", took it back to his church. When word got out, people began coming to the church because of the phenomena.

    He was later invited by John Arnott, Pastor of the Toronto Airport Vineyard, to come and speak at his church. The same manifestations followed Randy Clark, and the rest is history.

    (15) * Kansas City Fellowship

    Formed by Mike Bickel and Paul Cain. In 1991, after a great deal of concern regarding cultic/occultic/heretical beliefs and practices, the Vineyard took control of the church, arranged for an independent investigation of the church to be suspended. The Vineyard, under John Wimber investigated themselves, declared the KCF to be sound, and incorporated them into the Vineyard as the Kansas City Metro Vineyard Fellowship. The church split with the Vineyard in 1996 after the Vineyard and the TACF parted ways. The church is now know as the Metro City Fellowship.

    Most leaders in the KCF have now become the most prominent leaders in the Vineyard.

    The theology of this movement appears to consist of:

    - Real purpose of God is a church which provides redemption for our sins. Salvation through the sacrifice of Christ is secondary.

    - Manifest sons of God/New Breed: We will be manifested as sons of God in our glorified bodies while here on earth, to permit us to take the world for Christ. The doctrine teaches that these Sons will be equal to Jesus Christ in every way. They will be immortal, sinless, perfected sons who have partaken of the divine nature. They have every right to be called gods, and they are.

    - Restoration Theology. the church is slowly restoring theology and offices of early church. until we have completed this process and perfected the church, Christ cannot return.

    - Christians will become "gods".

    - Church will conquer Satan, and put an end to death (not Christ).

    - Dominion/Kingdom Now theology: We are to conquer and dominate the world in order to bring in the Millennium.

    - Jesus is optional as ruler during the millennium since the church is the "corporate Christ", and therefore as the body of Christ is and has all that Christ is and has.

    - Churches currently operating should join the KCF, then be shut down, until only a single church leadership remains in each city.

    - Re-establishment of the office of prophet in the church.

    - Prophets are required to be only 66% accurate (By revelation from God - God said to Bob Jones that he will supply false prophecies one third of the time).

    - Apostolic control (i.e. the leadership of the church tells you what to believe - their word is as good as scripture).

    - Believers incapable of properly understanding scripture.

    - See also William Branham, Latter Rain movement and Manifest Sons of God.

    - Denominations are the mark of the beast.

    (16) * Vineyard

    See also John Wimber.

    In 1991, the Vineyard investigated an organization then known as the Kansas City Fellowship, which was receiving a questionable reputation for some of its doctrines and activity throughout the Christian community.

    The Vineyard leaders and speakers are largely drawn from the former leadership of the Kansas City Fellowship (also known as the Kansas City Prophets). This includes Paul Cain, Bob Jones, Larry Randolph, Mike Bickel, Rick Joyner, and others.

    The Vineyard investigated the KCF, declared then doctrinally sound and then incorporated then entirely into the Vineyard as the Kansas City Metro Vineyard fellowship.

    Later that year, one of their main "prophets", Bob Jones, was discredited for sexual misconduct.

    The Vineyard believes that a global "super-church" will bring in a worldwide revival.

    A recently issued doctrinal statement indicates that the Vineyard considers that Bible infallible in "faith and practice", and defines the word of God as the Bible, taken in conjunction with current revelation from God.


    1977: Church formed under the Calvary Chapel denomination in California. John Wimber unilaterally announced formation of church and appointed himself the pastor.

    1981: First "manifestations" at the Vineyard.

    1983: Vineyard churches break from the Calvary Chapel to form their own "denomination".

    1991: Incorporated the KCF

    (17) * Bob Jones

    Bob Jones was one of the main "prophets" of the Kansas City Fellowship (The other being Mike Bickel). Despite being discredited in a sexual misconduct scandal in 1991 [8], Bob Jones remains a "prophet" within the Vineyard.

    His theology appears to consist of:

    - He claims that God revealed to him that prophets are to be only 66% accurate, and that he would be providing false prophecies so that they would not become more accurate. This was to prevent too many Ananias' and Saphira's.

    - Manifest Sons of God/Dominion Theology

    - City Churches. All other churches are to be incorporated into the Kansas City Fellowship, then closed and membership transferred to the the one city church under KCF leadership. Those pastors and elders who resist will be removed.

    - Shepherd's Rod Revelation:

    On the day of atonement each year, the prophet (Bob Jones) is to hold out his rod for all congregation to walk under (Note: This was said to be a revelation from God).

    - When he was in a mental institution, he claims that he was told by God that to regain his sanity, he must either forgive or kill 12 people.

    - Joel's Army/Kingdom Now/Dominion Theology

    Christians are to take control of and dominate the world, in order for the millennium to begin.

    (18) * John Arnott

    Current Pastor of the Toronto Airport Vineyard Church, the center of the controversy.

    After he had heard about Randy Clark's manifestations and experiences, he invited Randy to speak at his church, and the laughter manifestations followed.

    John Arnott was heavily influenced by John Wimber and Kathryn Kuhlman also.

    John Arnott has indicated that he believes:

    - The doctrinal basis for the phenomena should NOT be tested against scripture - just the fruits, and then only after significant time has elapsed, typically years.

    - Believes in the concept of Joel's Army (Army of Christians to conquer the earth.

    (19) * Marc Dupont

    Current associate pastor at the Toronto Airport Vineyard church.

    Marc Dupont is most well known for his prophecies, in particular one which claims to have predicted the current "laughter movement". The prophecy says that the movement will be known by its great street ministry, consisting of people using music and arts to promote the gospel and to bring thousands of unsaved into the church. It also is very specific about how the movement would spread geographically.

    The prophecy claimed that the "revival" would begin in late 1993 or early 1994. In actual fact, the "holy laughter" movement and manifestations can be traced back into the early eighties, and even most of the main leaders of the vineyard say that what is happening now is not a revival, but rather a renewal or refreshing (ref: Champaign Vineyard Internet Server).

    The prophecy has proven to be wrong on these, and other accounts.

    (20) * Jack Deere

    Jack Deere was, until recently, the primary theologian in the Vineyard churches. John Wimber depended upon Jack Deere for advice on matters of theology. Jack Deere later left to join the First Presbyterian Church in Whitefish, Monatan.

    Aftrer some problems arose at this church, Jack Deere resigned from the Pastorship on June 20, 1996. On March 11, 1997, his association with the Presbyterian church was ended when he renounced jurisdiction of the Presbytery of Glacier.

    Jack Deere is now the director of Grace Training Center and an instructor in Biblical studies at the Metro Christian Fellowship (formally Kansas City Vineyard - see item #15). He's going to be part of a conference there in August 1997 entitled "Passion for Jesus: Calling Leaders to Extravagant Obedience." We understand that one of their goals is to "change the understanding and expression of Christianity in the whole earth in one generation."


    - Stated that he does not believe that he or the church know what the true gospel really is. Maybe in 5 or 10 years (statement made in 1991).

    - Scripture not sufficient for Christian living.

    (21) * Rick Joyner

    One East Coast minister who is heavily involved with Grace Ministries (A ministry started under the Kansas City Fellowship) is Rick Joyner of Morning Star Ministries in North Carolina.

    - Prophetic accuracy must be only 66% (per Bob Jones "revelation"). - Manifest sons of God/New Breed.

    - Creation of "superapostles" from the manifested sons of God. (i.e. 35 "Pauls" will be created)

    - Developed strategy to infiltrate and gain control of Christian Community throughout the U.S. and Canada on behalf of the Kansas City Fellowship.

    (22) * Grace Ministries

    Grace ministries is a separate organization set up under the auspices of the Kansas City fellowship. When the KCF was integrated into the Vineyard, Grace ministries became a separate organization from the KCF, within the Vineyard.


    The theology of Grace ministries is based upon the manifest sons of God/New Breed theology, as described under the Kansas City Fellowship.

    - Shiloh Ministries - this is a term used to designate the prophetic ministry that GM is offering to the church at large. "Ultimately, Shiloh will include a piece of property where a number of prophetically gifted ministries will live together as they share revelation with one another releasing a 'roundtable of the prophets' effect. This will release a greater prophetic understanding of God's purposes as they submit one to another."

    - City churches - There shall be one single church in each city. Churches other than the KCF are to join the KCF, then be shut down, and membership integrated into the KCF.

    The list of those associated with Grace Ministries and Kansas City Fellowship is continually growing. Bickel is the team leader. Others that hold leadership positions are: David Parker, Noel Alexander, Michael Sullivant, and Don Steadman.

    Other teaching and prophetic ministers who travel extensively are: Francis Frangipane, John Paul Jackson, Kevin Porsche, Reuven Doron, Charles Lynn, Larry Randolph, David Ravenhill, Jim Goll and Harry Schroeder. Rick Joyner, a minister with Morning Star Ministries in North Carolina is also heavily involved.

    (23) * Larry Randolph

    Larry Randolph was a leader/speaker in the Kansas City Fellowship. He is now a speaker for the Vineyard.

    (24) * Mike Bickel

    Mike Bickel, pastor ,of the Kansas City Fellowship appears to have been a key spark, along with Paul Cain in the formation of the Kansas City Fellowship/Kansas City Prophets.

    Mike Bickel has indicated belief in the following doctrines:

    - A New Form and Standard for Christianity is emerging. It will change our entire understanding of what Christianity is. In 20 years it will be entirely different.

    - City Churches: One church per city. Other churches are to join the KCF, transfer membership to them (or associated churches in other cities), and close down their churches).

    - Joel's Army/Kingdom Now/Dominion theology: the church is to conquer and subdue the earth in order to bring in the millennium.

    - New Breed/manifest Son's of God: We will be perfected into our glorified bodies prior to Christ's return. This will allow us to subdue the earth.

    - Christians become "gods".

    (25) * Manifest Sons of God/New Breed/Kingdom Now/Dominion Theology

    The following philosophies represent those commonly held by organizations following these theologies. The actual beliefs of any one organization may vary somewhat from the details presented below, but general theme remains the same.

    - A New Form and Standard for Christianity is emerging. It will change our entire understanding of what Christianity is. In 20 years it will be entirely different. Change will be so dramatic, the Christian church as we know it will oppose it. The change will come from outside the church.

    - Rapture of the "wicked" (Not of the saved!).

    - God is to be revealed when he takes his throne in the temple.

    - Christians cannot be deceived.

    - City Churches: One church leadership per city. Other churches are to join the KCF, transfer membership to them (or associated churches in other cities), and close down their churches).

    - Joel's Army/Kingdom Now/Dominion theology: the church is to conquer and subdue the earth in order to bring in the millennium.

    - New Breed/manifest Son's of God: We will be perfected into our glorified bodies prior to Christ's return. This will allow us to subdue the earth.

    - Christians become "gods". We have the "divine" nature.

    - Christ comes into us as a "seed" and grows into a "prophet". Christ therefore comes "within us".

    - Jesus was sent as a "pattern" for the corporate church (Corporate church in this context means that the church becomes Christ. Christ is not complete without us because he is the head and we are the body).

    - The current church has the spirit of "Antichrist".

    (26) William J. Seymour

    William Seymour was an elder in the Azusa Street Revival, who was criticized for his strong belief that all experience/doctrine needed to be tested against scripture.

    (27) * Toronto Airport Christian Fellowship (TACF)

    Formerly, the Toronto Airport Vineyard (Until Jan. 1996). The TAV was expelled from the Vineyard denomination primarily for not being in line with what John Wimber saw as the focus of his ministry, and for failing to recognize his authority. Our perception is that it was primarily a matter or control, and that Wimber was concerned because of the media focus on the TAV and John Arnott, rather than John Wimber and the Vineyard. John Wimber has reiterated his belief that the holy laughter movement is a move from God, and has not condemned or spoken against the movement, nor has he taken any action against any elements of the movement that continue to remain strong within the Vineyard, such as Randy Clark.

    (28) * Holy Trinity Brompton (UK)

    The Holy Trinity Brompton church in the UK has been the central source of most of the "Toronto Blessing" activity in the UK . One of the key promoters of the movement in HTB appears to be the Rt. Rev David Pytches. He and his wife were among the first from the church to visit Toronto and now all the familiar manifestations are seen at HTB, and have been spread throughout the UK.

    (29) * Brownsville, Pensacola "Revival" (Pensacola Outpouring)

    More recently, another movement that is said by some to be a separate movement, has originated in the Brownsville Assembly of God Church in Brownsville, near Pensacola Florida. This movement started after a visiting evangelist, Steve Hill, spoke at the church on June 18, 1995 and the manifestations that we have described as being part of the Toronto Blessing experiences began. Steve Hill had come in contact with the manifestations during a trip to the Holy Trinity Brompton church in the UK, and the last we heard remains at the Brownsville AOG church. The effects of this movement are now being felt within not only the Assemblies of God churches, but also Methodist and Southern Baptist churches.

    At the time that the Brownsville "Revival" was at its peak, there was involvement by a large portion of the membership of the nearby Pine Forest United Methodist church in Pensacola. Since that time, there have been some changes in leadership and the current pastor, Bob McKibben, teaches a much more Biblically based perspective on the nature of God and on the gifts/manifestations of the spirit than that taught by those in the "Revival" movement. He has recently published a book on the topic titled "Holy Smoke! Unholy Fire!" attempts to provide a balanced perspective on this topic.

    Current information suggests that there is little or no difference between the Brownsville "experiences" and the "Toronto" experiences, and indeed the Brownsville and HTB experiences are both propagated from the Toronto experiences.

    For more information on Pensacola, including the recent prophecy, later shown to be false, go to the Toronto Blessing/Holy Laughter Research Material Page.



1. Old Wine in New Wineskins: A look at the Kansas City Fellowship, Stephen F. Cannon, Personal Freedom Outreach, 1990.

2. A PROPHET SENT FROM GOD? : Examining the Life and Claims of William M. Branham, Stephen F. Cannon, Personal Freedom Outreach, 1988.

3. soc.religion.quaker Answers to Frequently asked questions, Obtained from the Society of Friends internet server.

4. Laugh or Cry?, The Aberrant Views of Rodney Howard Browne, G. Richard Fisher, Abba II Ministries/BBS, 1995.

5. God Can Do It Again, Kathryn Kuhlman, Prentice-Hall, 1969.

6. Manifest Son's of God, Elliot Miller, Research Consultant, Christian Research Institute, Inc., 1979.

7. Questions of Credibility (Sidebar to "Toronto Blessing" Stirs Worldwide controversy, Rocks Vineyard Movement), Journal, Christian Research Institute, Winter 1995.

8. Minister removed after confession of sexual misconduct, Olathe Daily News, 11/31/91.

9. Christianity in Crisis, Hank Hanegraaf, Harvest House, 1993.

10. John Wimber: Friend or Foe, St. Matthias Press, 1991

11. Joel's Army and The New Breed - New Names for an Old Heresy, L.E. Passe, 1990

12. Road to Holocaust, Hal Lindsey, Bantam, 1989

13. Inspect the fruit of the Holy Spirit, Not the Phenomena says Renewal Figure, Mike Mullen, New Wine Internet server.

14. Assoc. of Vineyard Churches Theological/Philosophical statement, Champaign Vineyard Internet server.

15. Assoc. of Vineyard Churches Doctrinal statement, Champaign Vineyard Internet server.

16. Prophecies about Toronto, Marc Dupont, Pt.I May 1992, Pt.II July 1993, Champaign Vineyard Internet server.

17. Talking to Dave Roberts about the `Toronto' Blessing, Noel Stanton - Interviewer, Jesus Fellowship Church, Juune 1995.

18. What in the World is Happening to Us? Bill Jackson, Champaign Vineyard Internet server.

19. Notes for Ministry/Sermon, John Arnott, May 7,1995, New Wine Internet server.

20. Internet Discussion re: Prophecy concerning criticism of the renewal, T. Seputis, Nov.1994

21. Summary Report on the Current Renewal and the Phenomena Surrounding it, Association of Vineyard Churches, Sept/Oct. 1994.

22. Internet Discussion re: Laughter, D.Hwang/H.luce, Apr. 24, 1995.

23. Fidonet Discussion re: Laughter, F. Hudson, Apr. 1995.

24. Internet Discussion re: Laughter, A. Bailey, June 1995.

25. Internet Discussion re: Toronto Airport Vineyard, M. Lehtinen, June 1995.

26. John Wimber Responds to the Phenomena, Assoc. of Vineyard Churches, 1995.

27. Update on Laughter Phenomena, Dr. E. Cheong, June 18, 1995.

28. Update on Laughter Phenomena, Dr. E. Cheong, June 30, 1995.

29. A Treatise concerning Religious Affectations, Jonathon Edwards.

30. The Latter Rain, Sermon by David Wilkerson, delivered Times Square Church, Jan 9, 1995.

31. The Zadok Priesthood: Discerning the difference between Holy and Phony Ministries, Sermon by David Wilkerson, delivered Times Square Church, July 25, 1994.

32. Falling Away to the Antichrist, Sermon by David Wilkerson, delivered Times Square Church, June 26, 1995.

33. Mainstream Newsletter of the Banner Ministries UK, Spring 1995.

34. The Animalization of Christianity: Chaos in the Vineyard, G. Richard Fisher and M. Kurt Goedleman, Personal Freedom Outreach 1995.

35. Accusers of the Brethren or Good Bereans? Debra Bouey.

36. Weighed and Found Wanting, A book written and published by Bill Randles, a Pentecostal Minister.

37. O Timothy Magazine, Vol. II, Iss. 7, 1994, Laughing Revivals. David W. Cloud.

38. Redefining the Gospel: Vineyard Ministries Jack Deere makes Startling Admission, Personal Freedom Outreach, 1991.

39. A Memoir of `The Vineyard' 1986-1994, Cheryl Thompson, 1995.

40. The Toronto Phenomenon: Is It of God? How can Christians Decide? Tricia Tillin, Banner Ministries, 1994.

41. What's Happening at the Toronto Airport Vineyard? Christian Research Institute, 1995.

42. No Laughing Matter, Larry Thomas, Oct. 1994.

43. Spiritual Pickpockets, Western Tract Mission Inc., 1992.

44. William Branham, Cal Breisner, Christian Research Institute, 1979.

45. George Fox's Teaching on the Place of Scripture, Quaker Electronic Archive, 1995.

46. Oneness Pentecostalism and the Trinity, Robert W. Bowman Jr., 1992.

47. Kingdom Theology, Bryan G. Moore, June 1987.

48. History of the Revival 1993-5 7th Edition, Richard Riss, Jan 1995.

49. Ye are Gods? Orthodox and Heretical Views on the Deification of Man, Robert Bowman Jr., 1989.

50. The Toronto Blessing: A Charismatic Counterfeit, B B Press, N. Ireland, 1995.

51. The Laughing Revival, George O. Wood, General Secretary, General Council of the Assemblies of God, U.S.A.

52. Open Letter From John Arnott re: TAV Split from AVC.

53. Brownsville, Pensacola: - "Toronto" or Not?, Andrew Strom., 1995

54. A History of the Revival 1992-1995, Items #19, Richard Riss, 1995

55.. ibid, Item #27 56 Manifestations of God's Power, John A. Kilpatrick Pastor of Brownsville AOG, Nov. 1995.

56. Daughter of Destiny -Kathryn Kuhlman: Her Story, Jamie Buckingham, 1976

57. Blessings Falling in...Pensacola:Beth, Richard Riss Blessings Page (Internet), Beth McDuffie, 1995.

58. Holy Smoke! Unholy Fire!: A Pastoral Letter to the Church, Dr. Robert C. McKibben